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考研英语阅读:《经济学人》读译参考TEXT 351

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经济学人:民粹主义政策:对移民强硬是对是错(2)


Leaders  Left behind

 

领导者 落在后面

Boys born in London's Chelsea can expect to live nearly nine years longer than those born in Blackpool.Opportunities are limited for those stuck in the wrong place, and the wider economy suffers.



译文



出生在伦敦切尔西的孩子可以期望比出生在布莱克普尔的孩子多活接近9年。对于身陷错误地区的人而言,机会是有限的,而涉及面更广的经济体却深受其害。


If all its citizens had lived in places of high productivity over the past 50 years, America's economy could have grown twice as fast as it did.Divergence is the result of big forces.


译文


如果其全体公民在过去的半个世纪中都居住在高生产力地区,美国经济可能会以两倍之快的速度增长。差异是几大力量的结果。


In the modern economy scale is increasingly important.The companies with the biggest hoards of data can train their machines most effectively; the social network that everyone else is on is most attractive to new users; the stock exchange with the deepest pool of investors is best for raising capital.These returns to scale create fewer, superstar firms clustered in fewer, superstar places.Everywhere else is left behind.



译文



在现代经济中,规模愈发重要。拥有最大数据储备的公司能够最有效地训练它们的机器;其他人都在上面的社交网络最吸引新用户;拥有最深的投资者蓄水池的股票交易所最利于筹集资金。这些规模的回报在越来越少的、超级明星般的地区造就出越来越少的、超级明星般的公司。剩下的地区被落在了后面。


Even as regional disparities widen, people are becoming less mobile.The percentage of Americans who move across state lines each year has fallen by half since the 1990s.The typical American is more footloose than the average European, yet lives less than 30 kilometres from his parents.Demographic shifts help explain this, including the rise in two-earn-er households and the need to care for ageing family members.


译文


在地区差异拉大的同时,人们正变得少了不那么流动了。自上世纪90年代以来,每年都跨州流动的美国人的比例下降了一半。一般而言,美国人比普通欧洲人更能够四海为家,然而他们却住在离父母不到30公里的地方。人口变化有助于解释这一点,以及双职工家庭和对照顾上了年纪的家庭成员的需求的增加。


But the bigger culprit is poor policies.Soaring housing costs in prosperous cities keep newcomers out.In Europe a scarcity of social housing leads people to hang on to cheap flats.In America the spread of state-specific occupational licensing and government benefits punishes those who move.The pension of a teacher who stays in the same state could be twice as big as that of a teacher who moves mid-career.


译文


但是,更大错误是糟糕的政策。富裕城市中飞涨的住房成本将新人拒之门外。在欧洲,社会住房的稀缺导致人们困守廉价公寓。在美国,州里所特有的职业注册与政府福利惩罚的是流动之人。呆在同一个州里的教师的养老金可能是在执教期间四处流动的教师的两倍之多。


注释


1.takes account of 考虑到


例句:Urban planners in practice have to take account of many interest groups in society.


城市规划人员在实际工作中必须把社会各利益集团都考虑在内。


2.hang on 坚持;不挂断


例句:The British driver was unable to hang on to his lead.


英国车手没能保住自己的领先地位。


3.housing costs 住房成本


例句:Construction and housing costs were also 22.9 per cent higher than last year.


建设和住宅成本也比去年同期上涨了22.9%。


4.care for 关心


例句:I had a strong desire to help and care for people.


我非常渴望能够帮助和照顾他人。


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