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考研英语阅读:《经济学人》读译参考TEXT 516

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经济学人:讣告:群体遗传学家卡瓦利-斯福扎逝世 享年96岁(3)


Obituary: Luca Cavalli-Sforza

讣告:路卡·卡瓦利-斯福扎


The drift of humankind

人类的漂流

This theory stood until the 2000s, when new technology reversed it.He had often carped about the public's interest in fossils, so much less informative—to him—than genetic studies of the living.Once DNA could be extracted from ancient bones, however,it showed that although agriculture had indeed reached Europe from the Middle East,a wave of immigration from the north-east, starting about 5,000 years ago, had diluted those first farmers with tall herdsmen from the Pontic Steppe.


译文


这个理论一直持续到20世纪才被新技术推翻。卡瓦利-斯福扎经常抱怨公众对化石的兴趣,化石给他的信息要比现代人类基因研究给他的信息少得多。然而,一旦DNA可以从古化石中提取,就显示了尽管农业真的是从中东传到欧洲的,但是始于约5000年前,从东北过来的移民浪潮——庞蒂克草原的高大牧人——稀释了第一批农民。


People had moved and mixed in prehistory more than he thought;and not all ancient events, as he supposed, had left their mark in modern populations.Even more controversial was his Human Genome Diversity Project, which he set up in the 1990s.He wanted to study isolated populations in order to understand where all the others came from;to measure the background of drift, or genetic change, that takes place without marauding or migration.


译文


史前人类的移动和混合远比卡瓦利-斯福扎预料的更多;并不是所有古代的事情,都如卡瓦利-斯福扎料想的那般,在现代人身上留下痕迹。更有争议的是卡瓦利-斯福扎在20世纪90年代建立的“人类基因组多样性项目”。他想研究孤立的群体以便得知其他群体的来源;为得知在没有劫掠或移民的情况下,人类漂流或是基因改变的背景。


Some people thought this racist, and a more worldly man might have realised that.A few critics even brought up his membership of Benito Mussolini's fascist youth organisation, compulsory before the war.All this dismayed him, as he had done so much to strike down "scientific" studies based on race.The project died in its original form, though it was resurrected as the Genographic Project, which goes on.


译文


一些人认为这是种族主义,更世俗的人可能会这样想。一些批评家甚至提出他是二战前贝尼托·墨索里尼发起的法西斯青年组织的义务成员。所有这一切都让他感到沮丧,因为他做了这么多都是为了摧毁基于“种族”的科学研究。这个项目最初的形式消亡了,尽管它作为基因工程又复活了,现在还在继续。


From Belluno he witnessed the overturning of many other conclusions.Every evolutionary story he had touched became more complex by the day.Yet he could comfort himself that without his original vision for the study of human history through its genes, much of that great debate would not have happened at all.


译文


从贝卢诺开始,卡瓦利-斯福扎见证了很多结论的颠覆。他曾接触过的进化的说法都日渐变得复杂起来。但是,值得欣慰的是,没有卡瓦利-斯福扎通过基因研究人类历史的最初版本,大部分这样的伟大辩论都将不会发生。


注释


1.extract something from 取出


He extracted a small notebook from his hip pocket.


他从臀后口袋拿出了一本小笔记簿。


"I believe this claim is simply an attempt to extract money from me... something I will not do, " he said.


他说:“我相信这种说法只是想从我身上榨取金钱.这是我不会做的事。”来源于《BBC》


2.bring up 提出;养育


Now she helped bring up her brothers and sisters.


现在她帮助抚养她的兄弟姐妹。来源于《BBC》


Bring up the Bodies will be shorter than the 672-page Wolf Hall, Mantel added.


曼特尔补充说,提起尸体的时间将比672页的沃尔夫大厅短。来源于《BBC》


3.strike down (尤指因疾病)使丧命,摧垮


Frank had been struck down by a massive heart attack.


弗兰克被严重的心脏病夺去了生命。


It also might strike down the health-care mandate but leave the remainder of the law intact.


它可能还会废除医疗保健的规定,但保留法律的其余部分。来源于《NEWYORKER》


The court could decide to strike down parts of the law.


法院可以决定推翻部分法律。来源于《WSJ》

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